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Textbook systems worldwide

Länderprofil

Austria


Bildungssystem

Das Bildungssystem ist föderal organisiert.

"At school level the Federation (meaning in particular the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research has primary responsibility for school organisation, the organisation of school instruction and private schools. These matters are all governed by federal legislation. With the 2017 Education Reform Act there was a reorganisation of school administration. This is being taken over by education directorates, a joint authority of the federation and provinces. Until now, schools already had a certain autonomy in budgetary management and adapting curricula to local needs. With the Education Reform Act they were also granted greater autonomy with regard to the organisation of teaching and schools and in the selection and development of personnel. To use resources effectively, schools are able to join together to form clusters." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/organisation-and-governance-1_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Lehrpläne

Lehrplan basiertes System

"The Federal Ministry for Education, the Arts and Culture (BMUKK) promulgates curricula on the basis of the School Organization Act. All curricula provide for areas of school autonomy which schools can but are not obliged to use. The preparatory work for curriculum development is entrusted to teachers’ working groups set up to cover most subjects. [...] The primary school curriculum is framed in broad terms. It defines in a general way the educational objectives, the educational and didactic responsibilities, and the contents to be taught in the different subjects and the interdisciplinary fields. The curriculum is the foundation on which teachers may independently base their conceptual and practical work." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Austria.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Pflichtschulzeit

"In practice, however, compulsory education starts one year earlier (i.e., at the age of five), as a year of kindergarten was made compulsory in Austria in 2010/11 (Agreement pursuant to article 15a of the Federal Constitutional Law on the introduction of free and compulsory half-day early education in institutional childcare facilities (Vereinbarung gemäß Art 15a B-VG über die Einführung der halbtägig kostenlosen und verpflichtenden frühen Förderung in institutionellen Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen)). Thus, compulsory education starts at the age of five and lasts 10 years." http://www.perfar.eu/policy/education/austria

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Schulbuchauswahl

LehrerIn Schule

"As the curriculum of primary school has a framework character, teachers enjoy a certain freedom of choice regarding the selection and weighting of the syllabus and the choice of teaching methods and materials." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-1_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

"The teachers and the school community have some leeway in selecting the teaching materials to be used. In general, however, the competent Federal Minister is responsible for decreeing the basic materials a school should have for teaching purposes. Here, teaching materials are those aids that serve to support or facilitate individual teaching tasks and ensure that the teaching outcome is achieved. The content and form of these teaching materials must be in line with the curriculum of the respective school grade and with the competences (education standards) to be imparted by the respective school type. Their acquisition must be economically justifiable and they must be used appropriately. Before any teaching materials (such as school textbooks, CD-ROMs, DVDs, maps and therapeutic teaching materials) are declared suitable for use in the classroom, an expert report must be obtained. Exceptions are reading materials (literary texts) and working materials (for writing, drawing, measuring and for practical classes)." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-1_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Lehrmittelfreiheit

Schulbücher werden den SchülerInnen kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt.

"All pupils receive the suitable and necessary textbooks free of charge and they have a legal title to free travel to and from school. In both cases, small deductibles apply." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Austria.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


LehrerInnenausbildung

LehrerInnen benötigen eine zusätzliche praktische Ausblidung. LehrerInnen benötigen einen Universitätsabschluss.

"According to the new Service Code, all teachers – irrespective of the school at which they teach and which subject they teach – are obliged to undergo part-time further development measures to improve their profession-oriented competences. By order they are required to attend in-service training events for up to 15 hours per school year while there are no lessons. In-service training programmes may be connected with an omission from teaching only if in the significant interest of the service." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/continuing-professional-development-teachers-working-early-childhood-and-school-education-1_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

"Teachers for the pre-primary year and primary school are trained at tertiary-level university colleges of teacher education (Pädagogische Hochschulen). Cadidates for university colleges must have passed the secondary school-leaving examination, or a special higher education examination or secondary school leaving examination for working people. The training course for prospective primary school teachers lasts at least six semesters (three years) leading to the award of the degree of Bachelor of Education. Normally prospective primary school teachers acquire the qualification for teaching all subjects in primary school (except religous instruction) and pre-primary education. [...] Teachers receive in-service training either through autonomous study or by attending training events, with 15 hours per year of such training being compulsory. [...] Teachers in lower secondary schools often teach their subjects to the same class for all four years, although changes may be necessary for various reasons. Lower secondary and pre-vocational school teachers, just likeprimary and special school teachers, follow tertiary-level training at university colleges of teacher education." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Austria.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Geschichte

Geschichte ist ein Kombinationsfach.

"Traditionally history is taught at the "Hauptschule" and the lower grades of the AHS [Allgemeine Hochschule] from the 2nd to the 4th grade for two hours a week. In the school year of 2008/09 the subject "Geschichte und Sozialkunde" (history and social studies) was renamed into "Geschichte, Sozialkunde und Politische Bildung" (history, social studies and political education) and the curriculum was changed in its content accordingly. [...] In the upper grades of  the AHS history is taught in all grades, in the 5th and 6th grade as "Geschichte und Sozialkunde" ("history and social studies") and since 2002 under the name of "Geschichte und Politische Bildung" (history and political education)."

Erdmann, Elisabeth/Hasberg, Wolfgang (2011): Facing - mapping - bridging diversity. Foundation of a European discourse on history education. Schwalbach/Ts.: Wochenschau-Verlag (History education international, 1,1), p. 36-37.

[For specific details see the table on pages 25, 28-30.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Austria.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Politik/Sozialkunde

Politik/Sozialkunde ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 25, 28-30.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Austria.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Religion

Religion ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 25, 28-30.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Austria.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Geographie

Geographie ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 25, 28-30.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Austria.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


Bildungsreformen

1869, Imperial Act on Primary Education (Reichsvolksschulgesetz): "At the dawn of the 20th century, the Austrian population was already fully alphabetized thanks to the Reichsvolksschulgesetz (Imperial Act on Primary Education) passed in 1869. It was the first act to uniformly organise the entire system of compulsory education and it abolished school fees and extended the duration of compulsory education from 6 to 8 years." http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC57357/reqno_jrc57357.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

1962, School Education Act (Schulunterrichtsgesetz): "The 1962 School Education Act ("Schulunterrichtsgesetz"), which fixed at 6 years old the entry age to compulsory schooling and extended its duration to 9 years (from 6 to 15), still forms the legal basis for the entire system of education. In 1965, the concept of furtherance was complemented by the concept of remedial instruction, which, in 1979, was extended to all four grades of the "Grundschule" (levels I and II of primary school or special school). In 1979, interdisciplinary and co-educational instruction was also introduced as a teaching principle." http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

1975, School Organisation Act (Schulorganisationsgesetz): "In Austria, the main reforms affecting teachers focused on their training. In 1975, the 5th amendment of the School Organisation Act ("Schulorganisationsgesetz") introduced separate initial teacher training for teachers at "Hauptschulen" consisting of three years of training in two subjects along the lines of initial teacher training at universities." http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

1985, Compulsory Education Act of 1985 (Schulpflichtgesetz): "Compulsory education is regulated in the Compulsory Education Act of 1985 (Schulpflichtgesetz 1985)." http://www.perfar.eu/policy/education/austria

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

1986, Curricular Reform (Primary education): "In 1986, the Grundschule curriculum suffered a thorough revision. The aims of this reform were to convey a joint elementary education to all pupils, to emphasise principles of special education, in particular in the school entry phase, the coordination between the pre-school and primary education and the consideration of new didactic findings at primary level. This reform was achieved after a phase of broadly-based democratic debate and pilot projects involving more than 1,000 teachers and parental representatives in different working groups. The 1986 Primary School Curriculum has ever since been continuously further developed. For instance, in 1991, intercultural learning was integrated as a principle of instruction and, in 1994, the provision of full-day attendance at school was introduced." http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

1988, School Education Act (Amendment) (Schulunterrichtsgesetz): "In 1988, the School Education Act was amended towards a more individual shaping of school life by introducing elective compulsory subjects and a new conception of the school-leaving examination "Reifeprüfung" (matriculation examination)." http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

1995, Law for Secondary School Teachers: "The working conditions of secondary school teachers were upgraded by federal law only in 1995 with the introduction of an early retirement model for teachers aged at least 56,5, with reduction in pension benefits. This law also established the right for a parental leave up to 10 years and a sabbatical with a 1-year exemption from teaching assignments and a reduced salary over a 5-year period." http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

1999, Curricular Reform (Lehrplanreform): "At the end of the 1990s, the "Lehrplanreform" (curricular reform) compelled both types of lower secondary school to cross-subject teaching, and in 2000, the new curricula for Hauptschule (general secondary school) and the lower cycle "Allgemein bildende höhere Schulen" (academic secondary school) were adopted allowing for the indepth study of regional issues." http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019

2010, Extension of Compulsory Schooling: "In practice, however, compulsory education starts one year earlier (i.e., at the age of five), as a year of kindergarten was made compulsory in Austria in 2010/11 (Agreement pursuant to article 15a of the Federal Constitutional Law on the introduction of free and compulsory half-day early education in institutional childcare facilities (Vereinbarung gemäß Art 15a B-VG über die Einführung der halbtägig kostenlosen und verpflichtenden frühen Förderung in institutionellen Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen)). Thus, compulsory education starts at the age of five and lasts 10 years." http://www.perfar.eu/policy/education/austria

zuletzt geprüft: 15.05.2019


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