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Textbook systems worldwide

Länderprofil

Sweden


Bildungssystem

Das Bildungssystem ist zentral organisiert.

"The curriculum, national objectives and guidelines for the public education system are laid down by Parliament and the government. The federal budget provides municipalities with a sum of money to carry out the various municipal activities, among them practically all education (except higher education which is state run). Within the objectives and framework established by government and Parliament, the individual municipality may determine how its schools are to be run. However, a local school plan describing the funding, organization, development and evaluation of school activities must be adopted. Using the approved curriculum, national objectives and the local school plan, the principal of each school draws up a local work plan. This shall be done in consultation with the school's teachers and other personnel." http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:381260/FULLTEXT01.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Lehrpläne

Lehrplan basiertes System

"New consolidated curricula for compulsory schools for all students, Sami schools, special schools and high schools came into force July 1, 2011. The curricula contain new general goals, guidelines and syllabuses. The preschool curriculum includes clearer goals for children’s linguistic and communicative development and for science and technology. Mandatory national subject tests are held in years 3, 6 and 9 of compulsory school to assess student progress. There are also new qualification requirements for areas including high-school studies." http://sweden.se/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Education-in-Sweden-low-res.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Pflichtschulzeit

"Education is compulsory between the ages of six and sixteen. Compulsory education consists of ten years of primary and lower secondary education, including one pre-school year (grade 0) and years (grades) 1 – 9. Public school education also offers the pupils an optional year (grade) 10." http://fivu.dk/en/education-and-institutions/the-danish-education-system/general-organisation-and-administration

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


Schulbuchformate

Schulbücher werden in gedruckter Form bereitgestellt. Schulbücher werden in digitaler Form bereitgestellt.

"ICT is used as a tool for all learning and as an aid to develop teaching. Several online tools for teachers are made available free of charge at the website of the Swedish National Agency for Education for those teachers who wish to use them. This includes tools for on-going short-time programmes when the agency has received specific funds for a subject or for the professional development programme the Boost for Teachers (Lärarlyftet)." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-single-structure-education-36_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Schulbuchzulassung

"During the last decades there have been profound changes in the governmental control of school and education in Sweden. One of these important changes, that so far has not attracted the researchers’ attention, is the repeal of the official approval scheme for textbooks and teaching aids in 1991." http://iartemblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/8th_iartem_2005-conference.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Schulbuchauswahl

Schule LehrerIn

"At compulsory level the teachers are free to make their own decisions and choices of teaching material such as books, audio-visual materials, ICT etc. There is no list of compulsory reading materials. [...]
There is no authority that makes teaching material for the regular compulsory school system, but The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools (Specialpedagogiska skolmyndigheten) develops and produces special needs education teaching materials, primarily for pupils disabilities. The agency also adapt regular commercial publishers' products to give students with different forms of reading disabilities the possibility to use the materials. The Agency has the responsibility for coordinating state support to teaching materials for Special Needs Education." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-single-structure-education-36_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Lehrmittelfreiheit

Schulbücher werden den SchülerInnen kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt.

"All education throughout the public school system has long been free of tuition fees. There is usually no charge to school pupils or their parents for teaching materials, school meals, health services or transport in compulsory schools (grades 1-9) and upper secondary schools."

Wikander, Lennart: Sweden: Education for Social Change, In: Corner, Trevor: Education in the European Union. Pre-2003 Member States, Bloomsbury 2015, p. 285-304.


LehrerInnenausbildung

LehrerInnen benötigen einen Universitätsabschluss. LehrerInnen benötigen eine zusätzliche praktische Ausblidung.

"All teacher education, regardless of its intended age group, is today made up of the following three elements: studies in subjects and didactics of those subjects, general education studies, and practical education (in-service training), mostly carried out in schools."

Osbeck, Christina and Geir Skeie (2014): Religious Education at Schools in Sweden. In: Rothgangel, Martin (ed.): Religious Education at Schools in Europe: Part 3: Northern Europe. Göttingen: V&R unipress Gmbh, p. 255.

"Depending on the institution and subject, vocational and polytechnic teachers are required to have either 1) an appropriate higher (or postgraduate) academic degree; 2) an appropriate polytechnic degree; or 3) the highest possible qualification in their own vocational field, at least three years of work experience in the field, and completed pedagogical studies of 60 ECTS." http://www.pharmine.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/EURYDICE-national-summary-sheet-on-education-systems-in-Europe-Finland-2009.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 11.06.2019


Geschichte

Geschichte ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the table on this page.] https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-single-structure-education-36_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Politik/Sozialkunde

Politik/Sozialkunde ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the table on this page.] https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-single-structure-education-36_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Geographie

Geographie ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the table on this page.] https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-single-structure-education-36_en

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


Bildungsreformen

1686, Ecclesiastical Act: "The 1686 Ecclesiastical Act was an important milestone for Swedish popular education. It indicated effective methods of checking that the population was fulfilling the obligations prescribed by the  educational  programme. The Act made parents and masters responsible for teaching their children and servants to read. It charged  the clergy to check and record, by means of oral examinations at  parish catechetical meetings, that parents were performing their teaching duties, with approved results." http://www.srii.org/content/upload/documents/0788f5fb-08e4-4cd2-a933-43c363c981ff.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1842, Elementary School Statute: "The adoption of the 1842 Elementary School Statute implied two important decisions of principle. First, it meant that popular education assumed the character of an education tast and not a matter for the poorhouse. Secondly, popular education was to be kept entirely separte from education for the ‘public class’, that is, the form of school that to be designated as läroverk and which corresponded most closely to the grammer school (Richardson, 1992)." http://www.srii.org/content/upload/documents/0788f5fb-08e4-4cd2-a933-43c363c981ff.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1905, Secondary Grammar School Charter: "One of the less surmountable problems for the secondary grammar school was that a great many of the pupils quit school before getting a degree; there was only one degree, studentexamen (until 1910 known as mogenhetsexamen), which was the degree that pupils needed to be able to read at university. From the year 1905 the secondary grammar school (läroverk) was divided into two sections, realskola and gymnasium. The secondary school had been questioned because of the primacy of ancient languages that had contributed to a low frequency of graduates. The curriculum of the secondary school was governed by the preferences of the universities. In general, only the pupils from the Classical Program were accepted to universities, which meant that most pupils studied according to its syllabus; this was beginning to change though and pupils from the Natural Science Program also had the possibility to study at a higher level. When the new Secondary Grammar School Charter in 1905 divided the school system in two, the lower one (realskola) was made Latin free. This also made it possible to take out a lower certificate after six years at realskola (realexamen). This certificate did not include acceptance to university, but did allow the graduates to study at different types of trade schools. In order to begin at realskola pupils had to complete three years of primary folkskola which meant that pupils had to go in school for a total of nine years to graduate from the realskola. Acceptance to the four-year upper secondary grammar school (gymnasium) was made after five years at the lower secondary grammar school, which meant that 12 years of schooling were needed to graduate from the gymnasium and to have a possibility of engaging in university studies." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1909, Foundation of the Coeducational Lower Secondary School: "The location of state grammar schools for the lower secondary level left vast areas in the sparsely populated land without a school at lower secondary level. There were in fact only 58 lower secondary state grammar schools in existence and a further 19 locally funded , coeducational, lower secondary schools. However, a municipality-run middle school for municipalities that lacked a state grammar school and a locally funded coeducational lower secondary school, was formed in 1909 (kommunala mellanskolan). This middle school consisted of four years of education after the basic six years of primary school, which meant that the path to graduation was one year longer than with the nationally organized realskola." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1918, Foundation of the Continuation School: "A two year continuation-school (fortsättningsskola) was attached to the primary school in 1918, which made it possible to study for eight years without attending the realskola. However, the pupils at the continuation-school only studied part-time, which amounted to the equivalent of three months full-time studies a year and the compulsory length of schooling was still six years." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1919, New Curriculum: "The 1919 curriculum for the elementary school involved considerable changes. The religious instruction was reduced by 50 per cent and social studies, mathematics and the mother tongue were given more time. The secularisation of the school system had started. Fostering for national citizenship instead of the Lutheran faith became the task of the school system." http://www.srii.org/content/upload/documents/0788f5fb-08e4-4cd2-a933-43c363c981ff.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1920, Formation of the National Board of Education: "After 1927, most pupils spent at least four years at folkskola before moving on to other types of schools, or ending their education. However, the most important change was that a pupil could more easily use his or her primary folkskole-education to move up in the school-system through either nationally or municipality governed realskola or the locally governed kommunal mellanskola. The links between the primary and secondary education were also emphasized when the control organs were merged into a unified Swedish National Board of Education (Skolöverstyrelsen) in 1920." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1927, Girls Education in Upper Secondary Grammer Schools: "The girls’ schools had been able to educate girls so that they were accepted at upper secondary school level since 1909, but girls were still not accepted at the upper secondary grammar schools until the reform of 1927." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1930, Secularisation of the Administration of Primary Schools: "[...] in 1930 the control over the primary schools was shifted from the ecclesiastical municipality (the parish) to the civil municipality [...]." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1933, Introduction of the Practical Middle School: "[...] in 1933 the practical middle school (praktiska mellanskolan) was introduced [...]." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1936, Increase of the Duration of Primary Education: "[...] in 1936 it was decided that primary education at the folkskola was to be increased by one year – from six to seven years of compulsory school. The latter reform had little effect because most schools already had a seventh year with a further extra year of continuation school (fortsättningsskola), and the curriculum as a whole did not change [...]." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1938, State Approval Scheme for Textbooks: "A new way for the government to supervise the degree to which the requirements in the curricula were met was established in 1938, the State Approval Scheme for Textbooks (Statens läroboksnämnd). Before then, most textbooks were only approved by the schools themselves, but from 1938 all textbooks had to be approved by the Review Board." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1953, New General Curriculum: "Very few changes were made in the upper secondary grammar school system during this period, but a new program, the General program, was introduced alongside the Classical and the Natural Science Program in 1953. Otherwise the framework of the school system stayed almost intact between 1927 and 1964." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1958, School Inspection Reform: "As the aim was a more centralized school system, the government’s need to inspect local schools (folkskoleinspektionen) was reduced. Consequently, a middle level of inspection was established at the regional level in 1958 (between municipality and central government); Länsskolnämnd. This body inspected all types of schools on behalf of the Swedish National Board of Education (Skolöverstyrelsen), the national government, and the county." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1962, Universal Primary and Lower Secondary Education: "The key decision on a universal school was made in 1962 and the new nine-year compulsory school was to be called grundskola. This meant that the folkskola, fortsättningsskola, kommunal mellanskola, realskola and flickskola were to be liquidated and the new school was to have the local municipality as its responsible authority. The differentiation was limited to the last (ninth) grade, where nine different lines of education were established. One of these lines focused on preparing pupils for the upper secondary school. These nine lines of education could be merged together into three groups: One focused on preparing pupils for the upper secondary school, one on a more general vocational education, and one that was considered to be the first year of schooling towards work in the manual labor sector." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1969, Non-differentiated Compulsory School System: "In 1969, differentiation was abandoned in the Swedish compulsory school. From then on completion of compulsory school provided eligibility to all, or at least some, tracks in upper secondary school.6 A pupil was regarded as having completed compulsory school if (s)he had obtained grades in all subjects. In principle, the only way not to get a grade was to never show up in class. Thus, essentially all students completed compulsory school. According to Marklund (1985), Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce a long and non-differentiated compulsory school system." https://royalsociety.org/~/media/policy/topics/education-skills/Broadening%20the%20curriculum/sweden-case-study.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1970, Reform of Secondary Education : "Then, the 1970 Reform brought together upper secondary schools, lower technical-vocational schools and vocational education into a single administrative unit -the upper secondary school "gymnasieskolan"." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1976, Shift in Pedagogical Authority: "In 1976, the decision was made to provide local governing bodies with more control over the pedagogical methods used in school [...]." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1980, New Curriculum: "[...] a new curriculum for the nine-year compulsory school was passed in 1980. This curriculum was more individualized and freer in relation to both local solutions and to the individual pupil who gained more influence over his or her own education with more free choices. The culture-bearing profile of education continued, but this activity was taken over by the subject of Swedish and not as previously by the history and Christianity subjects." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1985, Municipal Management of Schools: "In Sweden, the Education Act (“Skollagen”, SFS) of 1985 gave the responsibility for school management to the municipalities, which were obliged to provide a number of basic services and ensure that Swedish schools upheld equivalent standards. The municipalities were granted extensive autonomy in administering them. All school teachers in municipal schools were made to municipal employees. To be permanently employed, a teacher had to have completed a teacher study programme at a university or university college. Applicants not fulfilling this requirement could be appointed for a maximum 12 months at a time." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1985, Swedish Education Act: "According to the Swedish Education Act, all children and young people, as mentioned above, have the riht to equal access to education, regardless of gender, domicile, or social or economic factors. The Education Act states that education should 'provide the pupils with knowledge and, in co-operation with the homes, promote their hamonious development into responsible human beings and member of the community' (Swedish Education Act 1985)."

Wikander, Lennart: Sweden: Education for Social Change, In: Corner, Trevor: Education in the European Union. Pre-2003 Member States, Bloombsury 2015, p.285-304.

1988, Act of Parliament on New Teacher Training: "But with the Act of Parliament on New Teacher Training for Grundskolan (“En nylärarutbildning for grundskolan”, SOU 1984/85:122) of 1988 this training got divided into branches corresponding to years 1-7 and 4-9, and contained the following four components: an introductory practical/pedagogical course of 20 credits; a so-called communication block of 40 credits; a specialist component of 60 credits directed towards the higher years; and a practically oriented course of 20 credits." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1991, Alteration in Educational Responsibilities: "In 1991, some of the responsibilities allocated to the municipalities were transferred back to the Riksdag and the Government. The municipalities retained primary responsibility for schooling, while the Parliament (“Riksdag”) and the Government set up goals for schooling through the Education Act, curricula and ordinances." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1991, Dissolution of the Review Board: "The operation of censoring, revising and approving textbooks which had been carried out within the framework of government school control also ended in 1991. Starting in 1938, the textbook revision and approving scheme had been downsized since the middle of the 1970s and since the 1980s the approving had ended and the textbook commission had taken a turn towards a reviewing service for teachers. As of 1991, the activity stopped completely." http://www.eurviews.eu/nc/de/bildungsgeschichte/schweden.html?user_digisource_pi1[sid]=289&user_digisource_pi6[view]=5&user_digisource_pi6[language]=1

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

1994, Restructuration of Secondary Education: "In 1994, upper secondary education was further re-structured and the upper secondary school's lines and special courses were integrated into 16 national programmes, all of which were three years in length. The Swedish grading system was changed via the group relative grading system to a goal and knowledge related grading system with four-level grading. The group related relative grading system meant that all pupils throughout the country who took the same course in a subject were compared and constituted a reference group." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2000, New Form of Initial Training for Teachers: "Further on, in 2000, an Act of Parliament defined a five-year agreement on a new form of initial training for teachers at all levels of education." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2003, Swedish National Agency for School Improvement: "Establishment of the Swedish National Agency for School Improvement: responsible for improvement issues in the preprimary and primary education. The government sets up a four‐year pilot scheme whereby compulsory schools can offer teaching of subjects in English. The pilot scheme began in 2003 and will run until the end of June 2010. The scheme, which is regulated in a special ordinance, allows municipalities to arrange for some of the teaching in compulsory school to be performed in English, during the trial period limited to half the teaching time. No single subject may be taught exclusively in English. It is already standard procedure at the Swedish National Agency for Education to allow grant‐aided independent schools to administer some of the teaching in English, also to pupils who do not have English as their mother tongue. The authority is to monitor and evaluate the scheme, as are the participating municipalities." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2009, Teacher Education Reform: "In its bill ‘Top of the class – new teacher education programmes’ (Government Bill 2009/10:89), that was passed by the Riksdag in April 2010, the Swedish Government proposed that the degree of Bachelor/Master of Education should be replaced by four new professional degrees: a degree in pre-school education, a degree in primary school education, a degree in subject education and a degree in vocational education. The requirement in the Higher Education Act that there should be a special body responsible for teacher education and for research associated with such education in higher education institutions that have the right to award degrees in education has been repealed. The new education programmes started in the autumn of 2011." https://www.european-agency.org/country-information/sweden/teacher-education-for-inclusive-education

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2011, New Swedish Education Act: "The new Swedish Education Act of 2011 contains basic principles and provisions for compulsory and further education, pre-school, pre-school year, out-of-school care and adult education. It promotes greater oversight, freedom of choice, and student safety and security." https://sweden.se/society/education-in-sweden/

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2011, New Curricula: "New consolidated curricula for compulsory schools for all students, Sami schools, special schools and upper secondary schools came into force 1 July 2011. The curricula contain new general goals, guide­lines and syllabuses. The pre-school curriculum includes clearer goals for children’s linguistic and communicative develop­ment and for science and technology. Mandatory national subject tests are held in years 3, 6 and 9 of compulsory school to assess student prog­ress. There are also new qualification requirements for areas including upper secondary school studies." https://sweden.se/society/education-in-sweden/

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2011, New Grading System: "The old Swedish system with four grades from Pass with Special Distinction (MVG) down to Did Not Pass (IG) was replaced by a new grading scale with six grades from A to F in 2011. A to E are passing grades, with F as a failing grade. Grades are assigned starting in year 6. The new grading system is very similar to the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS), the standard grading system for higher education in Europé." https://sweden.se/society/education-in-sweden/

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2013, Teacher Certification: "As of 1 December 2013, professional certification is required for school and pre-school teachers on permanent contracts. The decision, a milestone in Swedish education policy, aims to raise the status of the teaching profession, support professional development and thus increase quality in education." https://sweden.se/society/education-in-sweden/

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019

2015, National Qualifications Framework: "Sweden has introduced a national qualifications framework in accordance with the European parliament recommendation on a European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF). The Swedish Qualifications Framework (SeQF) is based on the EQF, which 38 European countries are connected to.
Learners, graduates, education providers and employers can use the framework to understand and compare qualifications awarded in different countries in Europe and by different education and training systems. The government determines which level of the national qualification framework certain European qualifications correspond to. It is also possible to apply for level assessment of other qualifications." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/national-qualifications-framework-80_sh

zuletzt geprüft: 15.08.2019


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