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Textbook systems worldwide

Länderprofil

Portugal


Bildungssystem

Das Bildungssystem ist zentral organisiert.

"School governance in Portugal is fairly centralised. The main lines of action about the curriculum, the educational programmes, national examinations, teacher recruitment and deployment, and the budget distribution are defined centrally by the Ministry of Education and Science. There has been some devolution of responsibilities to municipalities in areas such as curricular enrichment activities, management of the schooling infrastructure, and non-teaching staff resources; as well as some autonomy granted to individual schools in areas such as the hiring of part of the staff (on fixed-term contracts, trainers for vocational courses) and the selection of textbooks." http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/oecd-reviews-of-evaluation-and-assessment-in-education-portugal-2012/school-education-in-portugal_9789264117020-4-en

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Lehrpläne

Lehrplan basiertes System

"The Portuguese curriculum is defined at national level and is goal-oriented. The school's autonomy is reflected in the fact that one subject form the curricula can be chosen by each school and developed independantly, taking into account curricular guidelines. The general curriculum framework for schools is based on the development of students' knowledge and a set of essential skills that aim to:
1. Guarantee that all Portuguese citizens have a common general education that ensures that they discover and develop interests and skills that promote individual fulfillment, in harmony with the values of social solidarity;
2. Develop a culture of national awareness, openness to other opinions and in a context of universal humanism and international solidarity and cooperation;
3. Further the acquisition of independent attitudes in order to raise citizens with a sense of civic responsibility who participate democratically in community life." http://www.eun.org/documents/411753/839549/Country+Report+Portugal+2017.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Pflichtschulzeit

"Compulsory education starts at age 6 and is mandatory for the next 12 years." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/portugal/

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Schulbuchproduktion

Die Schulbuchproduktion wird von privatwirtschaftlichen Unternehmen durchgeführt.

"In Portugal, there was no textbook evaluation policy until 2006, with State policies, until then, extremely liberal concerning textbooks. In addition, private enterprise was left in charge of the production and distribution of textbooks in schools. The marketing of textbooks was also uncontrolled, while the selection of titles to be used was the responsibility of the schools themselves and of the teachers." https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/12663/1/Sousa%20%26%20Dioni%CC%81sio,%202010.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Schulbuchformate

Schulbücher werden in gedruckter Form bereitgestellt. Schulbücher werden in digitaler Form bereitgestellt.

"This consortium developed the EduLabs Project (2014-2017) [...], aiming at creating a new pedagogical model through which teachers and students could work with digital tools [...].
In this model, schools have computers, interactive boards, Wifi internet, and students have tablets, digital books and access to learning support platforms. Students and teachers are permanently connected by the platforms that supports teaching and learning." http://www.eun.org/documents/411753/839549/Country+Report+Portugal+2017.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

"Article 127 of Law no. 7-A/2016, 30th March, which approved the 2016 State Budget, foresees the free distribution of textbooks to all students in the first year of the 1st cycle of basic education, with the creation of a working group whose mission is to define a programme for the acquisition and reuse of textbooks, with a view to implementing such a measure in compulsory schooling within the term of the current legislature." https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Portugal:National_Reforms_in_School_Education#Free_and_Reused_Schoolbooks

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Schulbuchzulassung

Schulbücher sind für den Gebrauch an Schulen zugelassen.

"All instructional materials (e.g., textbooks, practice books, and teaching aids) must be approved and certified by a regulatory agency under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and Science." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/portugal/instruction-for-mathematics-and-science-in-primary-and-lower-secondary-grades/

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Schulbuchauswahl

Schule

"From the list of approved and certified textbooks and education aids, schools have limited autonomy to adopt manuals in each of the curricular areas offered by the school." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/portugal/instruction-for-mathematics-and-science-in-primary-and-lower-secondary-grades/

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Lehrmittelfreiheit

Schulbücher werden den SchülerInnen kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt. Schulbücher stehen den SchülerInnen nicht kostenlos zur Verfügung.

"According to specific criteria based on the income of the families:
   • The families who are  financially disadvantaged, can receive a monthly subsidy that varies 
   according to the family’s income and number of children;
   • these families can be exempt of income tax on the expenses they accrue in education and training,
   and can receive financial rebates;
   • school transportation, meals, textbooks and learning material can be subsidised for disadvantaged
   families. This social support is extendable to Secondary Education, but only for students with special
   education needs." https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Portugal:Early_Childhood_and_School_Education_Funding

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


LehrerInnenausbildung

LehrerInnen benötigen einen Universitätsabschluss. LehrerInnen benötigen eine zusätzliche praktische Ausblidung.

"Teachers receive their education through polytechnic or university programs, holding at least a bachelor’s (preprimary education) or a master’s degree (primary and secondary education). With the implementation of the Bologna process (finalized in 2009–2010), a master’s degree in education is the minimum requirement for teaching. The curriculum subjects, groups of subjects, or areas that these graduates can teach are defined by their teaching diploma. After getting a teaching qualification degree, university graduates must pass a national qualifying examination with general education and subject specific components. Newly appointed teachers undergo one year of supervised practicum and probationary teaching and must be approved with at least a grade of “Good.”" http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/portugal/teachers-teacher-education-and-professional-development/

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Geschichte

Geschichte ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the tables on pages 47 and 48.] http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001247/124786e.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Politik/Sozialkunde

Politik/Sozialkunde wird nicht unterrichtet.

[For specific details see the tables on pages 47 and 48.] http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001247/124786e.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Religion

Religion ist ein Einzelfach.

"The Portuguese Constitution enshrines the inviolable freedom of belief, religion and worship, and also the separation between the State and the different religious communities. The Basic Education Law guarantees both the freedom to learn and teach and also the freedom to be taught any religion practised by the respective faith community. Catholic Religion and Morality lessons are given in Portuguese schools (excluding higher education) by the Roman Catholic Church, on the basis of the Concordata signed between the Portuguese State and the Holy See. However, there is legislation which extends this principle to other faiths, so that they may all be deemed to enjoy equality of opportunity and treatment under the law." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/ICE/natrap/Portugal_1.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Geographie

Geographie ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the tables on pages 47 and 48.] http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001247/124786e.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


Bildungsreformen

1952, People's Education Plan: "Hence, in 1952, the government was compelled to introduce the People’s Education Plan aiming at reinforcing compulsory education. Subsequently, compulsory schooling was increased to 4 years, first for boys, in 1956, then for girls, in 1960." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 14.11.2018

1964, Extension of Primary Education: "In 1964, it was further extended to 6 years and the “Ensino primário” was divided into 2 cycles: the elementary cycle, lasting 4 years, and the complementary cycle, lasting 2 years." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1967, Teaching by Television: "In 1967, the “Telescola” (teaching by television), in parallel to the primary complementary cycle, and the “ciclo preparatório” to upper secondary education (replacing the first two years of “ensino liceal” and “ensino técnico-profissional”) were introduced." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1972, Co-Educational System: "In 1972, the segregated teaching for boys and girls was replaced by a co-educational system." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1974, New Secondary Education Structure: "After 1974, the two main changes made to upper secondary education consisted in unifying the general course corresponding to today's  third cycle and in creating general complementary courses also to unify the two existing branches of teaching: "ensino liceal" and technical education." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1974, Reform in Teacher Training: "Among the reforms having affected Portuguese teachers’ training is the reform of 1974 on professional teacher training courses which put an end to the state examination and the distinction between posts for men and women (which severely penalised the latter), and increased the overall number of posts on offer and the responsiveness of training to all educational influences." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1975, Unified Secondary Education: "The 1975 reform on general secondary education created a unified secondary education, from the 7th to the 9th year of schooling, bringing together general and vocational education." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1976, Constitution: "The current Portuguese educational system is still governed by the constitution of 1976. The constitution guarantees the right to create private schools. It proposes to eliminate illiteracy, to provide special education to those children who need it, and to preserve the autonomy of the universities. It guarantees the rights of teachers and students to take part in the democratic administration of the schools." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1978, Upper Secondary Education Reform: "Then, in 1978, the complementary courses were restructured in an attempt to eliminate the two existing branches of upper secondary education: "ensino liceal" and technical teaching. The idea was to give pupils access to higher education and, simultaneously, to give them easy access to a professional career through a network of training systems already available or about to be created. It was also expected that the 10th and 11th grades would be a smooth follow-up to the 9th form and its various options established by the Implementing Order No. 140-A/78. In structure, they were organized into five study areas, each with three components: a general component common to all areas, a specific educational component and a vocational component." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1979, New Arrangements for Teachers without Professional Training: "Then, the Publication of Decree 519-T1 of 1979 established new contractual arrangements for teachers with general academic training but no professional training, by enabling them to complete the latter in service (“profissionalização em exercício”)." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1986, Education Act: "Furthermore, the Education Act of 1986 aimed at a sequential, interconnected model to provide two alternative paths in upper secondary education: courses mainly geared to the pursuit of further studies (general courses) and courses mainly geared to working life (technological courses)." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1989, Curricular Reform: "(1) In line with the objectives defined for "ensino básico" by the 1986 Education Act, a curricular reform is introduced to each of the cycles and guidelines change in new syllabi (Decree‐Law No. 286/89, of 29th August). The curriculum is organised according to the following general principles: Improving teaching in the mother tongue language; Improving personal and social education, particularly through the multi‐disciplinary area of Personal and Social Development; Introduction to a foreign language from the 1st cycle on, providing structured, sequential teaching of foreign languages; Integration of activities to complement the curriculum, to make creative, formative use of students' spare time; Adoption of an inter‐disciplinary and integrating view of knowledge and skills developed by each of the disciplines and by the school area; Adoption of an assessment system that aims to promote the success of all students, according to the different pace of development and progress." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 22.02.2018

1989, Legal Scheme for School Autonomy: "(2) Decree‐Law No. 43/89, of 3rd February, which defines for the first time the legal scheme for school autonomy, implemented using a projecto educativo for the purpose, prepared collectively, adapted to the characteristics and resources of the school and given the support of the surrounding community." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1993, Enrolment and Attendance Scheme: "Decree‐Law No. 301/93, of 31st August ‐ lays down the scheme for enrolment and attendance in "ensino básico"." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1998, School Autonomy Scheme: "(1) Decree‐Law No. 115‐A/98, of 4th May, amended by Law No. 24/99, of 22nd April, and other complementary legislation, approved the current autonomy scheme, state school administration and management of education, based on the general principles of participative democracy, giving priority to pedagogic criteria, with representation of administrative andmanagement bodies." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

1999, More Power and Responsibilities for Local Authorities: "In 1999, the framework was laid for the transfer of power and responsibilities to the local authorities." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

2003, Establishment of the Municipal Councils of Education: "Decree‐Law No. 7/03, of 15th January ‐ creates the Municipal Councils of Education." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

2009, Extension of Compulsory Schooling: "Moreover, according to the Act No. 85/2009 of August, 27th, education is now compulsory until the age of 18 [...]." http://www.eun.org/documents/411753/839549/Country+Report+Portugal+2017.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

2016, New Textbook Policy: "The 21st Constitutional Government, in its programme, states its commitment to valuing people and focussing public policy on the principles of equity and equal opportunities for all Portuguese children and young people. The Government Programme also includes the development of '(...) a textbook acquisition and return system that gradually ensures free textbooks (...).' As such, to stimulate initiatives that make the most of school resources, the Government proposes to make textbooks less expensive for families and encourage their re-use without jeopardizing the freedom of schools to adopt textbooks, according to the provisions of Law no. 47/2006, 28th August, which defines the textbook assessment and certification system for primary and secondary education.
Article 127 of Law no. 7-A/2016, 30th March, which approved the 2016 State Budget, foresees the free distribution of textbooks to all students in the first year of the 1st cycle of basic education, with the creation of a working group whose mission is to define a programme for the acquisition and reuse of textbooks, with a view to implementing such a measure in compulsory schooling within the term of the current legislature." https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Portugal:National_Reforms_in_School_Education#Free_and_Reused_Schoolbooks

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

2016, National Plan to Promote Success in School: "This [National Plan to Promote Success in School (NPPSS)] is the government's flagship initiative to prevent school failure and reduce grade repetition in all educational stages. In basic education, the new national examination system introducing formative tests in the second, fifth and eighth grades (7-, 10- and 13-year-old students) for Portuguese and mathematics is now fully implemented. Since the 2016/2017 school year, students who have repeated more than one grade are assigned a trained tutor to accompany their learning and improve performance outcomes, as well as to build their trust in school.
The plan is based around close cooperation between local administrations and school clusters. Schools can propose new pedagogical initiatives adapted to their student population and receive additional resources to develop them.
Training will be provided to school managers and teachers, together with some municipal staff. This will focus on strategic planning, setting indicators and use of resources." https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/monitor2017-pt_en.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018

2017, Student's Profile for the 21st Century: "The Student's Profile for the 21st century, was approved in 2017, and is a reference document prepared by the Ministry of Education, for the organization of the whole educa-tional system, contributing to the convergence and articulation of decisions inherent to the various dimensions of curriculum development. The document describes Students' Profile intended to lead to a school education in which the students of this global generation build and settle a humanistic-based scientific and artistic culture. To do so, they mobilise values and skills that allow them to act upon the life and history of individuals and societies, to make free and informed decisions about natural, social and ethical issues, and to carry out a civic, active, conscious and responsi-ble participation.
The Student's Profile Guidelines purpose is to contribute for a better organization and management, and also for setting up the definition of strategies, methodologies and ped-agogical-didactic procedures to be used in teaching practices." http://www.eun.org/documents/411753/839549/Country+Report+Portugal+2017.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 23.02.2018


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