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Textbook systems worldwide

Länderprofil

Polen


Bildungssystem

Das Bildungssystem ist zentral organisiert.

"As a result of the state administration reform and the education reform, only the national educational policy is developed and implemented centrally, while the management of education and the administration of schools, nursery schools and other educational institutions is decentralized. The responsibility for the administration of nursery schools (przedszkole) and primary schools (szkoła podstawowa), and lower secondary schools (gimnazjum) since 1999/2000, has been delegated to the commune (gmina). The management of schools above the lower-secondary level, art schools and special schools has been delegated to districts (powiat) as their statutory responsibility. The self-govening provinces (województwo) administer only schools operating at supra-regional level. The responsibility for pedagogical supervision rests with the heads of the regional education authorities (kurator oświaty) in 16 provinces." https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Poland:Administration_and_Governance_at_Central_and/or_Regional_Level

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Lehrpläne

Lehrplan basiertes System

"The Ministry of National Education prepares core curricula for pre-primary, general and vocational education. It also determines framework timetabled in public schools, and requirements for curricula to be used in school. Core curricula provide a framework for the reformed system of school education which is based on the principle of school autonomy. Indeed, schools independently decide on the contents of the curricula, their scope and methods for implementing them. These decisions are taken jointly, by a collective body of teachers, after consultations with parents and taking into account pupils' needs, conditions in the school and specific local conditions (tradition, local dialect, etc.)." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Pflichtschulzeit

"Starting from the school year 2012/2013, children are expected to start compulsory education in primary school at age 6. […] Following the implementation of the educational reform, education at the post-primary level is now offered by: (i) three-year gymnasia, or compulsory schools that provide general education to primary school leavers; (ii) three-year general education lyceums or specialized lyceums [...]; (iii) four-year technical secondary schools [...]; (iv) two- or three-year basic vocational schools [...]." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017

„Following the 2015 election, the new Government decided to revert to the previous arrangements in response to parents’ protests against the lowering of the age of entry into primary education to 6 years.
As from 1 September 2016, the obligation to start education in the first grade of the primary school has been re-introduced for 7-year olds. Children aged 6 are required to complete one pre-school preparatory year in a nursery school or another pre-school education setting, or – as from 31 August 2019 – as part of preschool classes in a primary school. Places are provided for all 4- and 5-year olds whose parents wish their children to participate in preschool education. As from 1 September 2017, places will also be provided to all 3-year old children who wish to enrol. At the parents’ request, children who reach the age of 6 in a given calendar year may also start primary education if they:
 1.) participated in preschool education in the school year preceding the school year of entry into primary education or
2.) have a certificate confirming that they can start primary education, issued by a counselling and guidance centre.
Thus, parents may choose when their children start primary education (6 or 7 years).“ https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Poland:Early_Childhood_Education_and_Care

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Schulbuchproduktion

Die Schulbuchproduktion wird von privatwirtschaftlichen Unternehmen durchgeführt. Die Schulbuchproduktion ist staatlich organisiert.

"Meanwhile, the idea to allow the state replace school book publishers has been gaining ground in neighboring Poland. [...] As in Hungary, the Polish government is aiming to prepare the textbook on its own. [...] Currently, the big three [educational] publishers and two smaller publishers are mostly [financing themselves] by books for the grades one to three, [...]." http://publishingperspectives.com/2014/02/can-textbook-nationalization-curb-profiteering-publishers/

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017

""Nasz elementarz” [name of the textbook made by government] prepared at the request of the Ministry of National Education has been delivered to 11,413 public and 632 non-public primary schools. It accounts for 97.38% of schools in Poland.[...]
The textbook for first-graders is an open proposal which offers various possibilities of using it by each teacher. It should inspire, and not be a ready-made offer to follow indiscriminately. The teacher may use the ideas included in it, adapting them to the potential of her students, as well as expand and deepen these ideas, or introduce her own ones.
Each of the four parts contains interrelated content from the following fields of education: Polish language, social issues, mathematics and natural science. “Nasz elementarz” encourages students to take up artistic classes and physical activity.
An online guide for the teacher which will accompany the textbook – Methodology Guide – is being prepared, which will cover all the educational content. On www.naszelementarz.men.gov.pl teachers will find various scenarios or ideas for classes, sample work charts, and proposed educational activities. Four versions of the textbook adaptation for disabled children have been prepared“ https://www.premier.gov.pl/en/news/news/beginning-of-a-great-change-at-schools-free-textbook-and-subsidy-system.html

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


SchulbuchautorInnen

DozentInnen Andere

"In September 2014 a pupil in grade 1 of primary school will receive a free textbook for Polish, maths, natural science and social education. The school will receive a target subsidy for the purchase of exercise material and foreign language textbook. In the following years the schools will receive funds to cover costs of textbooks and exercise materials for older pupils.
In 2015 free textbooks will be made available to all pupils of grade one, two and four in the primary school, and grade one in the lower secondary school (gimnazjum). In 2016 free textbooks are planned to be offered to pupils of grades one, two, three, four and five in the primary school, and grades one and two in the gimnazjum.
It is planned that in 2017 all pupils of primary and lower secondary schools will receive textbooks free of charge." https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Poland:Teaching_and_Learning_in_Primary_Education

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Schulbuchformate

Schulbücher werden in gedruckter Form bereitgestellt. Schulbücher werden in digitaler Form bereitgestellt.

"Textbooks are standard instructional materials in almost all schools and must conform to the National Curriculum. [...] There also are free, nationally published e-books for all major subjects." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/poland/instruction-for-mathematics-and-science-in-primary-and-lower-secondary-grades/

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Schulbuchzulassung

Schulbücher sind für den Gebrauch an Schulen zugelassen.

"The amended Act on the School Education System abolished the provision whereby the state was required to provide pupils with textbooks. The Act also established a mechanism for admission of textbooks to be used in school. The Ministry of National Education keeps a register of recommended textbooks; this list is usually published four times a year. To include a book in the miniterial list, the publisher should submit to the Ministry four favourable reviews (three reviews covering the contents of the book and on assessing its language). Textbooks may be reviewed by authorized experts who are nominated by the Ministry." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017

[There is state approval in Poland and the textbooks are prescribed.] [For specific details see the tables on pages 68 and 70.] http://biriwa.com/iartem/ejournal/volume4.2/papers/Paper4_Wilkens_ApprovalSystemsandPISA_Final_Vol4No2.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Lehrmittelfreiheit

Schulbücher stehen den SchülerInnen nicht kostenlos zur Verfügung. Schulbücher werden den SchülerInnen kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt.

"The School Education Act obliges the school head to make arrangements for the purchase of second-hand school textbooks within the school. Thus schools often organize second-hand textbook fairs where textbooks can be bought at lower prices." https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Poland:Early_Childhood_and_School_Education_Funding

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017

"In September 2014 a pupil in grade 1 of primary school will receive a free textbook for Polish, maths, natural science and social education. The school will receive a target subsidy for the purchase of exercise material and foreign language textbook. In the following years the schools will receive funds to cover costs of textbooks and exercise materials for older pupils.
In 2015 free textbooks will be made available to all pupils of grade one, two and four in the primary school, and grade one in the lower secondary school (gimnazjum). In 2016 free textbooks are planned to be offered to pupils of grades one, two, three, four and five in the primary school, and grades one and two in the gimnazjum.
It is planned that in 2017 all pupils of primary and lower secondary schools will receive textbooks free of charge." https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Poland:Teaching_and_Learning_in_Primary_Education

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


LehrerInnenausbildung

LehrerInnen benötigen einen Universitätsabschluss. LehrerInnen benötigen eine zusätzliche praktische Ausblidung.

"Teachers must have a higher education qualification. Pre-primary and primary education teachers are graduates from first- or second-cycle programmes (three-year bachelor's or five-year master's/magister degree programems) or from teacher training colleges and foreign language teacher training colleges offering three-year diploma programmes. Lower secondary education teachers are graduates from first- or second-cycle programmes (three or fice years). Upper secondary teachers normally graduate from second-cycle programmes. For those who graduate with no teaching specialization it is possible to acquire teaching qualifications through postgraduate studies or in-serive training." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017

"In-service teacher training is not compulsory; however, it is indispensable for professional development and career progression. In-service training is provided as complementary education and as staff development. Complementary education covers the courses of study which lead to a higher level of education or additional qualifications, and staff development covers the forms of refreshment, which enrich the working techniques of teachers within the qualifications they already have." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Geschichte

Geschichte ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 15, 18 and 19.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Politik/Sozialkunde

Politik/Sozialkunde ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 15, 18 and 19.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Religion

Religion ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 15, 18 and 19.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Geographie

Geographie ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 15, 18 and 19.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 30.06.2017


Bildungsreformen

1982, Teachers' Charter: "The status of the teaching profession was defined in a specific law of 26 January 1982, referred to as the Teachers' Charter." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 14.11.2018

1991, Education Act : "The education system in the country is governed by the Act on the System of Education of 7 September 1991, last amended in August 2011, as well as the relevant rules and regulations." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 02.05.2018

1995, Education Act (Amendment): "The 1995 amendmend to the Act aimed at strenghtening decentralization with simultatneous control and implementation of quality education in the framework of the pedagogical supervision ensured by governmental bodies. It also introduced  the notion of core curriculum, which enables the identification of criteria for school-based assessment and examination requirements." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 02.05.2018

1999, Act on the Implementation of the Education System Reform: "The Act on the Implementation of the Education System Reform of 8 January 1999 (and subsequent amendments) provided for introduction of the new structure of the scool system." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 02.05.2018

2014, Textbook Production: "Meanwhile, the idea to allow the state replace school book publishers has been gaining ground in neighboring Poland. In January 2014, the country’s Prime Minister Donald Tusk said this year’s first graders will receive their new comprehensive school book free of charge. As in Hungary, the Polish government is aiming to prepare the textbook on its own." http://publishingperspectives.com/2014/02/can-textbook-nationalization-curb-profiteering-publishers/

zuletzt geprüft: 02.05.2018

2016, Mandatory School Age: The Polish education system is facing significant changes that began in the school year 2016/2017, when the mandatory school age was raised from 6 to 7 years, reversing the reforms introduced in 2009. http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=17891&langId=en

zuletzt geprüft: 08.05.2018

2017, Curriculum Reform: "The current Polish government is now returning to the model used by the communist Polish People’s Republic. Then, the education system only had elementary and secondary schools.
[...] New curricula will be applied to the first, fourth and seventh grades. Textbooks are not yet ready for the other years. As in the past, history lessons begin in grade four, but according to the Polish association of historians, aspects related to everyday life and civilization will be removed from the five authorised history textbooks. The lessons will focus on military history and the lineage of Polish heroes.
[...] What is more, the sexual education curriculum in biology class will no longer include instruction on contraceptive methods." https://www.neweurope.eu/article/poland-teaches-controversy-new-education-reform/

zuletzt geprüft: 07.05.2018

2017, Structural Reform of the Education System: "From September 2017, primary school education will be extended from 6 to 8 years. There will be an external examination after primary school.
Learning in general secondary schools will last 4 years instead of 3 years. Upper secondary technical schools will have a 5-year curriculum, instead of 4 years." http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=17891&langId=en

zuletzt geprüft: 08.05.2018


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