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Textbook systems worldwide

Länderprofil

Polen


Bildungssystem

Das Bildungssystem ist zentral organisiert.

"As a result of the state administration reform and the education reform, only the national educational policy is developed and implemented centrally, while the management of education and the administration of schools, nursery schools and other educational institutions is decentralized. The responsibility for the administration of nursery schools (przedszkole) and primary schools (szkoła podstawowa), and lower secondary schools (gimnazjum) since 1999/2000, has been delegated to the commune (gmina). The management of schools above the lower-secondary level, art schools and special schools has been delegated to districts (powiat) as their statutory responsibility. The self-govening provinces (województwo) administer only schools operating at supra-regional level. The responsibility for pedagogical supervision rests with the heads of the regional education authorities (kurator oświaty) in 16 provinces." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/administration-and-governance-central-andor-regional-level-56_en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Lehrpläne

Lehrplan basiertes System

"The Ministry of National Education prepares core curricula for pre-primary, general and vocational education. It also determines framework timetabled in public schools, and requirements for curricula to be used in school. Core curricula provide a framework for the reformed system of school education which is based on the principle of school autonomy. Indeed, schools independently decide on the contents of the curricula, their scope and methods for implementing them. These decisions are taken jointly, by a collective body of teachers, after consultations with parents and taking into account pupils' needs, conditions in the school and specific local conditions (tradition, local dialect, etc.)." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Pflichtschulzeit

"Starting from the school year 2012/2013, children are expected to start compulsory education in primary school at age 6. […] Following the implementation of the educational reform, education at the post-primary level is now offered by: (i) three-year gymnasia, or compulsory schools that provide general education to primary school leavers; (ii) three-year general education lyceums or specialized lyceums [...]; (iii) four-year technical secondary schools [...]; (iv) two- or three-year basic vocational schools [...]." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

"In accordance with the Law on School Education, as from 1 September 2017, full-time compulsory education is now again provided by the 8-year primary school, and young people pursue part-time compulsory education in public and non-public post-primary schools or in the form of vocational training at an employer’s organisation. The reform of the school system is being implemented in accordance with the Act of 14 December 2016, the Provisions introducing the Law on School Education. Still existing lower secondary schools will be phased out by 31 August 2019." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/organisation-education-system-and-its-structure-56_en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Schulbuchproduktion

Die Schulbuchproduktion wird von privatwirtschaftlichen Unternehmen durchgeführt. Die Schulbuchproduktion ist staatlich organisiert.

"Meanwhile, the idea to allow the state replace school book publishers has been gaining ground in neighboring Poland. [...] As in Hungary, the Polish government is aiming to prepare the textbook on its own. [...] Currently, the big three [educational] publishers and two smaller publishers are mostly [financing themselves] by books for the grades one to three, [...]." http://publishingperspectives.com/2014/02/can-textbook-nationalization-curb-profiteering-publishers/

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

""Nasz elementarz” [name of the textbook made by government] prepared at the request of the Ministry of National Education has been delivered to 11,413 public and 632 non-public primary schools. It accounts for 97.38% of schools in Poland.[...]
The textbook for first-graders is an open proposal which offers various possibilities of using it by each teacher. It should inspire, and not be a ready-made offer to follow indiscriminately. The teacher may use the ideas included in it, adapting them to the potential of her students, as well as expand and deepen these ideas, or introduce her own ones.
Each of the four parts contains interrelated content from the following fields of education: Polish language, social issues, mathematics and natural science. “Nasz elementarz” encourages students to take up artistic classes and physical activity.
An online guide for the teacher which will accompany the textbook – Methodology Guide – is being prepared, which will cover all the educational content. On www.naszelementarz.men.gov.pl teachers will find various scenarios or ideas for classes, sample work charts, and proposed educational activities. Four versions of the textbook adaptation for disabled children have been prepared“ https://www.premier.gov.pl/en/news/news/beginning-of-a-great-change-at-schools-free-textbook-and-subsidy-system.html

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Schulbuchformate

Schulbücher werden in gedruckter Form bereitgestellt. Schulbücher werden in digitaler Form bereitgestellt.

"Textbooks are standard instructional materials in almost all schools and must conform to the National Curriculum. [...] There also are free, nationally published e-books for all major subjects." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/poland/instruction-for-mathematics-and-science-in-primary-and-lower-secondary-grades/

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Schulbuchzulassung

Schulbücher sind für den Gebrauch an Schulen zugelassen.

"The amended Act on the School Education System abolished the provision whereby the state was required to provide pupils with textbooks. The Act also established a mechanism for admission of textbooks to be used in school. The Ministry of National Education keeps a register of recommended textbooks; this list is usually published four times a year. To include a book in the miniterial list, the publisher should submit to the Ministry four favourable reviews (three reviews covering the contents of the book and on assessing its language). Textbooks may be reviewed by authorized experts who are nominated by the Ministry." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

[There is state approval in Poland and the textbooks are prescribed.] [For specific details see the tables on pages 68 and 70.] http://biriwa.com/iartem/ejournal/volume4.2/papers/Paper4_Wilkens_ApprovalSystemsandPISA_Final_Vol4No2.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Lehrmittelfreiheit

Schulbücher stehen den SchülerInnen nicht kostenlos zur Verfügung. Schulbücher werden den SchülerInnen kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt.

"As from 2014 pupils in primary schools (and lower secondary schools currently being phased out) have been gradually provided with publicly funded textbooks and exercise materials for general education. As from 1 September 2017, all pupils in primary schools, and lower secondary schools existing until now, should have access to free textbooks. With such materials funded from State-budget grants, costs of education incurred by parents can be reduced." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-34_en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


LehrerInnenausbildung

LehrerInnen benötigen einen Universitätsabschluss. LehrerInnen benötigen eine zusätzliche praktische Ausblidung.

"Teachers must have a higher education qualification. Pre-primary and primary education teachers are graduates from first- or second-cycle programmes (three-year bachelor's or five-year master's/magister degree programems) or from teacher training colleges and foreign language teacher training colleges offering three-year diploma programmes. Lower secondary education teachers are graduates from first- or second-cycle programmes (three or fice years). Upper secondary teachers normally graduate from second-cycle programmes. For those who graduate with no teaching specialization it is possible to acquire teaching qualifications through postgraduate studies or in-serive training." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

"In-service teacher training is not compulsory; however, it is indispensable for professional development and career progression. In-service training is provided as complementary education and as staff development. Complementary education covers the courses of study which lead to a higher level of education or additional qualifications, and staff development covers the forms of refreshment, which enrich the working techniques of teachers within the qualifications they already have." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Geschichte

Geschichte ist ein Einzelfach.

[For details see the table on this page.] https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-34_en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Politik/Sozialkunde

Politik/Sozialkunde ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For details see the table on this page.] https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-34_en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Religion

Religion ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the table on pages 15, 18 and 19.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Geographie

Geographie ist ein Einzelfach.

[For details see the table on this page.] https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-34_en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


Bildungsreformen

1982, Teachers' Charter: "The status of the teaching profession was defined in a specific law of 26 January 1982, referred to as the Teachers' Charter." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

1991, Education Act : "The education system in the country is governed by the Act on the System of Education of 7 September 1991, last amended in August 2011, as well as the relevant rules and regulations." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

1995, Education Act (Amendment): "The 1995 amendmend to the Act aimed at strenghtening decentralization with simultatneous control and implementation of quality education in the framework of the pedagogical supervision ensured by governmental bodies. It also introduced  the notion of core curriculum, which enables the identification of criteria for school-based assessment and examination requirements." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

1999, Act on the Implementation of the Education System Reform: "The Act on the Implementation of the Education System Reform of 8 January 1999 (and subsequent amendments) provided for introduction of the new structure of the scool system." http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Poland.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

2014, Textbook Production: "Meanwhile, the idea to allow the state replace school book publishers has been gaining ground in neighboring Poland. In January 2014, the country’s Prime Minister Donald Tusk said this year’s first graders will receive their new comprehensive school book free of charge. As in Hungary, the Polish government is aiming to prepare the textbook on its own." http://publishingperspectives.com/2014/02/can-textbook-nationalization-curb-profiteering-publishers/

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

2016, Mandatory School Age: The Polish education system is facing significant changes that began in the school year 2016/2017, when the mandatory school age was raised from 6 to 7 years, reversing the reforms introduced in 2009. http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=17891&langId=en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

2017, Curriculum Reform: "The current Polish government is now returning to the model used by the communist Polish People’s Republic. Then, the education system only had elementary and secondary schools.
[...] New curricula will be applied to the first, fourth and seventh grades. Textbooks are not yet ready for the other years. As in the past, history lessons begin in grade four, but according to the Polish association of historians, aspects related to everyday life and civilization will be removed from the five authorised history textbooks. The lessons will focus on military history and the lineage of Polish heroes.
[...] What is more, the sexual education curriculum in biology class will no longer include instruction on contraceptive methods." https://www.neweurope.eu/article/poland-teaches-controversy-new-education-reform/

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019

2017, Structural Reform of the Education System: "From September 2017, primary school education will be extended from 6 to 8 years. There will be an external examination after primary school.
Learning in general secondary schools will last 4 years instead of 3 years. Upper secondary technical schools will have a 5-year curriculum, instead of 4 years." http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=17891&langId=en

zuletzt geprüft: 10.07.2019


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