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Textbook systems worldwide




Das Bildungssystem ist föderal organisiert.

"Through decentralization and increased local autonomy, the decision-making process is now largely left to the institutions in cooperation with the local community. At the same time, the system of close control has been replaced by target and framework management, whereby the overall targets and requirements are laid down at central level and the implementation is under the responsibility of the local authorities and the indivdual schools."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


Lehrplan basiertes System

"The Ministry for Children, Education and Gender Equality is responsible for setting up the framework for curricula at primary and secondary level. The contents of the courses are then finalised by the teachers themselves with their pupils."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


"Education is compulsory between the ages of six and sixteen. Compulsory education consists of ten years of primary and lower secondary education, including one pre-school year (grade 0) and years (grades) 1 – 9. Public school education also offers the pupils an optional year (grade) 10."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


Schulbücher werden in gedruckter Form bereitgestellt. Schulbücher werden in digitaler Form bereitgestellt.

"Materialebasen is a database of more than 3000 learning resources that teachers from all over the country have scanned producing digital copies of textbooks and other analogue learning resources. All scanned resources comply with the copyright laws."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


"The Ministry of Education lays down general curricular aims and optional guidelines. There are no prescribed textbooks."

Amaro, G. et al. (2006): Country Reports: Education Systems in Europe. In: Hofman, R. H. et al. (ed.): Institutional Context of Education Systems in Europe. A Cross-Country Comparison on Quality and Equity, p. 91.


Schule LehrerIn

"The organisation of the teaching, including the choice of teaching and working methods, teaching materials and the selection of subject-matter in the individual subjects must live up to the teaching goals set by the Ministry of Education and must be varied so that it corresponds to the needs and prerequisites of the individual pupil. However, teachers have full autonomy regarding the choice of school textbooks. It is up to the head teacher to ensure that the class teacher and other teachers of the class plan and organise the teaching in such a way that it offers challenges to all pupils."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


Schulbücher werden den SchülerInnen kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt.

"The necessary teaching materials shall be made available to the pupils free of charge. This shall however not apply to instruments and equipment used for educational activities outside school hours in pursuance of section 3 (3), and which are taken home by the pupils for their private use."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


LehrerInnen benötigen einen Universitätsabschluss. LehrerInnen benötigen eine zusätzliche praktische Ausblidung.

"Initial training of pre-primary teachers (Bachelor in Social Education) and school teachers (Bachelor of Education for primary and lower secondary school teachers) have taken place at one of the seven university colleges in Denmark. [...] University colleges offer professional bachelor programmes as well as in-service education and further education in connection with this. [...] The two teacher programmes are constructed upon a concurrent model, i.e. a single programme in which students combine general education with theoretical and practical professional teaching. [...] Initial training of teachers at upper secondary level (STX, HF, HHX and HTX) takes place at the universities. This university programme is constructed upon a consecutive model which means that the students first undertake general education to obtain a degree in their chosen subject followed by a programme of professional teacher training."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

"Generally speaking, there is no legislation governing teacher in-service training in Denmark. The various in-service training provisions may however be mentioned in other legislation.
[...] According to a ministerial order with effect from 1 June 1994, regional committees for teacher in-service training are established for each of the areas covered by the departments of the Danish School of Education. These committees are to compile the teacher in-service training wishes of the counties, municipalities and the schools and communicate these wishes to the departments of the Danish School of Education and the colleges of education in the region and to the national and regional teacher in-service training institutions; draw up proposals for principles/guidelines regarding priorities, if all qualified applicants cannot be admitted to the in-service training courses; and, if possible, in cooperation with other regional in-service training committees, see to it that the supply of courses will in the long run correspond to the registered demand so that courses can be established on a regular basis within all subjects of the Folkeskole.
In-service training for Folkeskole teachers is provided for the most part by the Danish School of Education and by university colleges, teacher’s associations, other professional associations as well as the Ministry of Education.
[...] The courses for all types of teachers are held on a part-time or full-time basis as seminars or conferences.
There is no formal assessment of neither the participating teacher nor the in-service training system. The teachers of the Folkeskole who have participated in in-service training courses receive a certificate."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


Geschichte ist ein Einzelfach.

"Education in the folkeskole is distributed within three subject areas for class 1-9 and includes the following compulsory subjects:
Subjects within the area of the humanities:
[...] 4. History in form levels 3-9"

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Politik/Sozialkunde ist ein Kombinationsfach.

"Education in the folkeskole is distributed within three subject areas for class 1-9 and includes the following compulsory subjects:
Subjects within the area of the humanities:
[...] 6. Social studies in form levels 8 and 9"

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019


Religion ist ein Einzelfach.

"Religion is included as an independet subject in the curriculum of the primary and lower secondary school and on high school level. ['Religion' is a mandatory subject in the stx - the so-called level, meaning basic level.] As for the latter, the subject is named 'Religion' (Religion Studies or Religious Studies) [...]."

Mette Buchardt (2014): Religious Education at Schools in Denmark. In: Martin Rothgangel u.a. (Hg.): Religious education at Schools in Europe. Part 3: Northern Europe. Göttingen: V & R unipress, p.48f.


Geographie ist ein Einzelfach.

"Education in the folkeskole is distributed within three subject areas for class 1-9 and includes the following compulsory subjects:
[...] Science subjects:
[...] Geography in form levels 7-9"

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1937, Law about Folkskolen: "The 1937 Law about Folkeskolen defined Folkeskoler as 7-year public basic schooling covering primary and lower secondary education, an optional pre-school class and a supplementary optional year preparing for the lower-secondary examination “Réaleksamen”."

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1958, Law about Compulsory Education: "In 1958, compulsory education was extended from 4 to 7 years and middle schools were reorganised to form a superstructure at the upper end of the folkeskole with two lines: a 3-year academically oriented ‘réal’-department and the 8th-10th forms."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

1958, Reform in History Teaching: "Not till the school reform of 1958, which was an occasion for committee-work on the future form and content of the gymnasium, did any change occur on the didactics of history. [...] The branced-gymnasium, which was the result of the reform of 1958, meant a higher degree of differentation for the gymnasium and "this easily results in the pupils not only overlooking the interplay, which is found between the phenomena of many different subjects, such as between the humanities and the natural sciences, but also that they lose the historical perspective in past and present issues, which is valuable in their understanding of things."

Erdmann, Elisabeth; Hasberg, Wolfgang (2011): Facing - mapping - bridging diversity. Foundation of a European discourse on history education. Schwalbach/Ts.: Wochenschau-Verl (History education international, 1,1), S. 180-181.

1967, Higher Preparatory Examination: "Then, except for the introduction of the Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) in 1967, most of the Danish reforms of the century have targeted vocational programmes."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

1971, Extension of Compulsory Education: "Compulsory education was further extended in 1971 from 7 to 9 years."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

1975, Act on the folkeskole: "[…] the 1975 Act on the folkeskole introducing pupils’ councils, which […] focused on the establishment of a more favourable learning environment: Further laws targeted the examination provision, such as the 1975 Act abolishing the réalclass department and introducing two completely new examinations (namely, the Leaving Examination of the Folkeskole and the Advanced Leaving Examination of the Folkeskole, held on a single-subject basis [...]."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

1975, History as an Optional Subject: "In connection with the school-reform of 1975, history became an optional subject, which was found to be chosen only by a few pupils. Fortunately this development was conceived  as disturbing by many, wherefore there were endeavours to make the subject obligatory again. However, if this were to be the case it must be a new history that was to be told, but it turned out to be difficult to reach an agreement on this paradigm shift."

Erdmann, Elisabeth; Hasberg, Wolfgang (2011): Facing - mapping - bridging diversity. Foundation of a European discourse on history education. Schwalbach/Ts.: Wochenschau-Verlag (History education international, 1,1), p. 186.

1990, School Administration Reform: "[…] the 1990 Act introducing new provisions regarding the administration of schools, empowering headmasters with more managerial competences and establishing school boards with large parental representation."

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1991, Act on Teacher Training: "Act on teacher training describing the framework of the teacher training programme: a first part composed of a basic course with common core subjects and a second part containing the main subjects as well as general didactics and a pedagogical special study."

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1993, New Act on the Folkeskole: "In 1993, a new government - headed by the Social Democrats - launched a new Act on the Folkeskole to replace the old Act from 1975. Preparations for the new law were begun under the former governement, but it was the new Radical Minister of Education who saw it through Parliament.
The new Act differed from its predecessor on the following points:
1. an amended objects clause, which emphasizes that pupils must learn about Danish culture and gain insight into other cultures and mankind's interaction with the natural environment (see list below);
2. a new compulsory project assignment in the 9th and 10th grades;
3. no streaming by ability in the 8th-10th grades;
4. English already in the 4th grade;
5. schools are encouraged to offer French as an alternative to German;
6. a new subject: nature/technical studies for the 1st to 6th grades;
7. more lessons - also for creative subjects;
8. differentiated teaching according to pupil's needs;
9. interdisciplinary teaching;
10. more attention to the needs of the weaker pupils." 

Winter-Jenson, Thyge: Denmark: History, Reform and Legislation, In: Corner, Trevor (Ed): Education in the European Union. Pre-2003 Member States, Bloomsbury 2015, p.63-90.

1997, Act on Teacher Training: "Act on teacher training eliminating the small subjects of the 1991 programme. The students are now trained to teach four of the subjects of the Folkeskole and not like before all subjects, an examination with external examiners appointed by the Ministry of Education is required, and IT is integrated everywhere in the teacher training."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

1999, Teacher Reform: "Teacher agreements signed by the Danish Union of Teachers and the National Association of Local Authorities. Definition of a new teacher’s role; introduction of forms of cooperation between all participants in all the education process; salaries made more flexible, decentralised and individualised; and linkage of salaries to the targets and results of teachers activities."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

2003, Act to Reform General Upper Secondary Education: "Reform of the general upper secondary education (took effect in the school year 2005/06). The most profound effect of the reform was that it changed the structure of the four general upper secondary educations; the 3‐year upper secondary school leaving examination Studentereksamen (STX) the 3‐year higher commercial examination HHX, the 3‐year higher technical examination HTX and the 2‐year higher preparatory examination HF. From August 2005 onwards, the general upper secondary educations entail an introductory period of 6 months’ duration, which is common for all students. In the 2‐year higher preparatory examination program, however, this period is approximately four weeks. In the introductory period, the students will receive tuition within humanities as well as social and natural sciences. At the end of the introductory period, all students choose an issue‐specific direction; that is, choose subjects to concentrate on within certain predetermined frameworks and combinations."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

2003, Common Objectives: "In 2003, the Common Objectives were introduced. For the first time, the teaching objectives for each subject no longer constituted mere recommendations for the municipalities, but national goals that schools are required to follow. The Common Objectives establish centrally defined objectives and intermediate and final achievement goals for each subject, and describe the content of all subjects in the Folkeskole."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

2006, Primary School Act: "In 2006, a new primary school act was passed where it was, for the first time, emphasised that education should prepare pupils for more advanced levels of education and that they were to have an intimate knowledge of Danish history and culture."

Erdmann, Elisabeth; Hasberg, Wolfgang (2011): Facing - mapping - bridging diversity. Foundation of a European discourse on history education. Schwalbach/Ts.: Wochenschau-Verlag (History education international, 1,1), p. 188.

2015, New Common Objectives: "From 2013 to 2015, the Common Objectives were simplified. The new Simplified Common Objectives are formulated as competency objectives, and skill and knowledge objectives. The aim of the new Simplified Common Objectives is to shift focus from the contents of teaching to learning outcomes. The new Simplified Common Objectives were introduced on an optional basis in August 2014,4 and were implemented officially in August 2015."

zuletzt geprüft: 06.06.2019

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