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Textbook systems worldwide

Länderprofil

Italy


Bildungssystem

Das Bildungssystem ist zentral organisiert.

"The education system is organised according to the principles of subsidiarity and of autonomy of institutions. The State has exclusive legislative competences on the general organisation of the education system (e.g. minimum standards of education, school staff, quality assurance, State financial resources). The Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) is responsible for the general administration of education at national level. Its decentralised offices (Regional School Offices - USRs) guarantee the application of general provisions and the respect of the minimum performance requirements and of standards. Regions have joint responsibility with the State in some sectors of the education system (e.g. organisation of ECEC (0-3), school calendar, distribution of schools in their territory, right to study at higher level). Regions have exclusive legislative competence in the organisation of the regional vocational education and training system. Local authorities organise the offer (e.g. maintenance of premises, merging or establishment of schools, transport of pupils) from ECEC to upper secondary education at local level. Schools have a high degree of autonomy: they define curricula, widen the educational offer, organise teaching (school time and groups of pupils). Every three years, schools draw up their own Plan for the educational offer (PTOF)." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/italy_en

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019


Lehrpläne

Lehrplan basiertes System

"The Ministry of Education (MIUR) lays down a general framework for school autonomy to ensure uniformity within the Italian education system. In fact, the Ministry of Education sets the general objectives of the educational process, the `specific learning objectives' for pupils' skills, the subjects on the minimum national curriculum and the annual number of teaching hours dedicated to them, the total annual compulsory timetable for curricula, standards for the quality of education services, general criteria for pupil assessment, general criteria for the organisation of adult education study paths. Each school draws up its own Educational Offer Plan (Piano deroffetta format/to, POI) which is the basic document setting out the cultural and planning identity of the school. It must be consistent with the general and educational objectives of the various kinds of study and specialisms set at national level and, at the same time, it must reflect cultural, social and economic requirements at local level." http://www.indire.it/lucabas/lkmw_img/eurydice/quaderno_eurydice_30_per_web.pdf

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Pflichtschulzeit

"Education is compulsory for 10 years, from 6 to 16 years of age, and covers the eight‐year first cycle of education (5 years of primary school and 3 years of lower secondary school) and the first two years of the second cycle (DM 139/2007). After completion of the first cycle of education, the last two years of compulsory education (from 14 to 16 years of age) can be accomplished either in State upper secondary schools (licei, technical institutes and vocational institutes), or through the three‐year vocational education and training courses, falling under the competence of the Regions (law 133/2008)." http://www.indire.it/lucabas/lkmw_file/eurydice/sintesi_sistema_educativo_italiano_EN.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019


Schulbuchproduktion

Die Schulbuchproduktion wird von privatwirtschaftlichen Unternehmen durchgeführt.

“Publishers supply textbooks on a competitive and commercial basis.”

Braslavsky, Cecilia; Halil, Katya (2006): Textbooks and quality learning for all. Some lessons learned from international experiences. Paris: Unesco; International Bureau of Education, p. 201.


Schulbuchformate

Schulbücher werden in gedruckter Form bereitgestellt. Schulbücher werden in digitaler Form bereitgestellt.

"Textbooks still are the main medium of instruction. [...] As of the 2011–2012 school year, schools are required to adopt textbooks that are available exclusively in a downloadable or mixed media format, and to promote the development of digital culture and computer literacy. As of the 2014–2015 school year, schools are invited to develop digital education materials for specific disciplines to be used as textbooks and teaching and learning resources. [...] The materials then must be sent to the MIUR, which will make them freely available to all state schools." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/italy/instruction-for-mathematics-and-science-in-primary-and-lower-secondary-grades/

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Schulbuchzulassung

“In some countries with an open system of textbook supply (non-state monopoly) new textbooks have to pass through an evaluation and approval process before they are allowed to be used in schools. […] However in other countries such as France, Italy and the UK no such formal approval schemes are employed. In these countries some guidance may be given to which books or materials are suitable for which curriculum, but all adoption and purchase decisions are left to the individual school or teacher.”

Braslavsky, Cecilia; Halil, Katya (2006): Textbooks and quality learning for all. Some lessons learned from international experiences. Paris: Unesco; International Bureau of Education, p. 204.


Schulbuchauswahl

LehrerIn

"Teachers choose the textbooks and other didactic tools for their classes and submit their choice to the Teachers’ assembly that formally approves it. This formal procedure, known as ‘adoption of textbooks’ is not mandatory for schools and teachers. Textbooks can be in digital or mixed version (mixed versions are meant as paper versions, paper and digital versions or digital versions, all with integrative digital contents). In any case, textbooks and didactic tools must be consistent with the curriculum and with the Plan for the educational offer of the school (PTOF)." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-23_en

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Lehrmittelfreiheit

Schulbücher werden den SchülerInnen kostenlos zur Verfügung gestellt. Schulbücher stehen den SchülerInnen nicht kostenlos zur Verfügung.

"Primary school textbooks are free of charge for families, and the MIUR has established a cost limit for lower secondary school student textbooks." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/italy/instruction-for-mathematics-and-science-in-primary-and-lower-secondary-grades/

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019


LehrerInnenausbildung

LehrerInnen benötigen eine zusätzliche praktische Ausblidung. LehrerInnen benötigen einen Universitätsabschluss.

"Teachers of the pre-primary and primary levels obtain the second-cycle qualification after completion of a specific five-year single-cycle programme, including traineeship activities. Traineeship activities should start from the second year of the course. Courses have a planned number of available posts and an admission exam. Admission to courses requires also the possession of an upper secondary qualification or any other equivalent qualification obtained abroad. Courses end up with the discussion of a final work and of the final traineeship report. The discussion of the two reports makes up the final exam that also qualifies to teach at pre-primary and primary level. Courses under this procedure started in academic year 2011/2012." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/initial-education-teachers-working-early-childhood-and-school-education-38_en

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019

"Initial education for teaching in secondary schools is organised, starting from 2018, into one single system that includes both initial education and access to the teaching post. All secondary teachers, included support teachers and technical-vocational teachers, start their initial education by getting through an open competitive examination. To access the examination, candidates must hold a second-cycle higher education degree. Those who successfully pass the examination, start a three-year traineeship that includes both theoretical education, practical training and access to a post as teacher. Those who have received positive results in their periodic and final assessments during the three-year period of training become permanent-contract teachers." https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/initial-education-teachers-working-early-childhood-and-school-education-38_en

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019


Geschichte

Geschichte ist ein Einzelfach. Geschichte ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the tables on pages 24, 29-34 and 36.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Italy.pdf

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Politik/Sozialkunde

Politik/Sozialkunde ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the tables on pages 24, 29-34 and 36.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Italy.pdf

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Religion

Religion ist ein Einzelfach.

[For specific details see the tables on pages 24, 29-34 and 36.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Italy.pdf

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Geographie

Geographie ist ein Einzelfach. Geographie ist ein Kombinationsfach.

[For specific details see the tables on pages 24, 29-34 and 36.] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Italy.pdf

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Bildungsreformen

1923, Gentile Reform: "In 1923, the Gentile Reform defined primary education in term of five classes, with the addition of a supplementary three-year course for the sixth, seventh and eighth classes." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1928, Consolidation Act: "In turn, the Consolidation Act of 1928 subdivided further primary education into a three-year lower grade and a two-year higher grade, with an examination to be taken between the two grades." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1933, State Administration of Primary Education: "In 1933, the whole public primary education fell under the province of the state administration, thus completing a process started in 1911." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1955, New Curricula: "In 1955, new curricula were introduced by the Decree 503 and remained untouched until 1985." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019

1957, New Grade Structure: "The law of 1957 replaced the grade structure with a subdivision into cycles: the first grade is made up of the first and the second classes, while the second grade is made up of the third, fourth and fifth classes. At the end of each cycle, students sit for written and oral examinations." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019

1962, Unified Lower Secondary Education: "The next step is lower secondary education, which lasts for 3 years. Until 1962, it was divided into a general, academically-oriented track (scuola media, ISCED 2A) and a vocational dead-end track (scuola di avviamento professionale, ISCED 2C). The latter was suppressed in 1962, thus eliminating all sort of internal stratification at this level." http://www.mzes.uni-mannheim.de/publications/misc/isced_97/baro08_the_application_of_the_isced-97_to_italy.pdf

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1971, New Cultural and Educational Objectives: "In turn, the 1971 Law marked the end of a school merely confined to teaching children how to read, write and make calculations. The introduction of supplementary activities and special teaching (e.g., music, painting, drama), the extension of the school timetable into the afternoon (called "tempo pieno"), and the presence of more than one teacher in the same class began to give primary education broader cultural and educational objectives intending at stimulating pupils' interests and develop their personalities." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1973, Participation of Parents in the Management of the Schools: "[...] the Law 477/1973 and its delegated Decrees of 1974 introduced the participation of parents in the management of the schools." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1974, Legal Status of Teachers: "The 1974 Law, that reorganized for the first time the entire education system, granted teachers a legal status similar to that in other professions. Centres were created for school experimentation, the professional development of teachers and educational research (IRRSAE)." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1977, Introduction of New Teaching Methods and Integration of Disabled Pupils: "However, it is the Law 517 of 1977 that established by far the most significant cultural and social changes in compulsory school, especially as regards teaching planning, monitoring and assessment of individual pupils, team work among teachers and co-ordination of the various classes, integration of disable pupils in ordinary classes and the consequent abolition of special classes." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1985, Reform of the 1955 Curricula: "The primary education curricula adopted in 1955 were reformed in 1985 (DPR 104/1985) and implemented through the 1990 Law." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1990, Reform of Teacher Training: "[...] in 1990, initial teacher training for secondary education was introduced as part of the reform of regulations on university teaching (Law 341/1990). Teacher training for secondary education was to be provided at "scuola biennale di specializzazione post-lauream" (postgraduate schools offering two-year specialist training). However, the law was not implemented until six years later." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1994, Consolidation Act: "Further on, the Consolidation Act of 1994 provided the official definition of the existing branches of study (i.e. the classic, scientific and arts "licei", "istituto magistrale", technical institutes, vocational institutes and arts institutes)." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1997, School Autonomy: "Article 21 of this law grants autonomy to state schools. Moreover, the same law established the issuing of regulations, which were published in 1999, and provided for a gradual 2-year testing period. School autonomy became effective as from school year 2000-2001."

Ribolzi, Luisa (2013): From State Monopoly to Rising of a System of Schools, In: Wang, Yan (ed.): Education Policy Reform Trends in G20 Members. Berlin: Springer, p. 111-112.

1998, Reforms on Grade Structure, Staff Number, Textbook Provision and Student Rights: "Further reforms were passed in 1998 on the learning environment, starting with the D.M. 331/1998 and DM 141/1999 regulating the classes formation and the definition of the staff number; the Law 448/1998 extending the partially free provision of textbooks to students of the first and second grade of upper secondary education; and the ''Charter of students in secondary schools'' (D.P.R. 249/1998) foreseeing the right of students to 'a transparent and quick evaluation aimed at starting a self-evaluation process to identify his/her own strong and weak points and to improve his/her own performance'." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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1999, Compulsory Attendance of Formative Activities: "Among the most recent measures taken by the Italian government to improve the quantity and quality of secondary education are the Law 144/1999 providing for compulsory attendance of formative activities up to accomplishment of 18 years of age (compulsory training) and instituting the Higher technical education and training (IFTS) courses; [...]." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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2000, Reform of School Cycles and Compulsory Education: "[...] and Law 30/2000 reforming the entire system of education and training. The reform meant that, instead of two initial levels (primary school and lower secondary school), there shall be only one level (the 'basic school') bringing together the two existing levels into a single system lasting seven years. It also meant that the age of 18 shall be the upper limit for the period of compulsory education. However, suspension of the law by successive governments has resulted in a full return to the previous situation, in response to reservations expressed by the electorate with regard to the proposed changes." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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2003, Return to the Old School Cycles: "Recently, the Reform Law 53/2003 abrogated the Law 30/2000 on the reform of the school cycles and replaced the name "scuala elementare" (elementary school) by "scuola primaria" (primary school)." https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31853/1/MPRA_paper_31853.pdf

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2008, 'Gelmini' Law: "The 'Gelmini' Law has reorganized the compulsory education cycle, lasting 8 years for the 6-14 age segment, which today is virtually attended by all. School year repititions in the primary school have to be justified, because the new pedagogical model considers them useless or even capable to lead to children's social and educational marginalization. [...] Law 137 has also extended the right of education up to the age of 18, thus introducing an important element, since students can exercise this right not only as regards general education in the traditional school, or regional vocational education, but also as regards apprenticeship. [...] The upper secondary level was reorganized too: there are currently six kinds of general high school (Liceo) in all, and on the other side, nine different kind of technical schools and two kinds of vocational schools."

Ribolzi, Luisa (2013): Italy: From State Monopoly to Rising of a System of Schools. In: Yan Wang (Hg.): Education Policy Reform Trends in G20 Members. Berlin: Springer, p. 109.

2015, New Entry Requirements for the Teaching Profession: "A significant reform of the Italian educational system was approved in July 2015 (legge 107/15); the law anticipates the redefinition of entry requirements for the teaching profession and the elements of preservice training for secondary school teachers, the details of which will be determined in future legislation. Based on the results of a compulsory national competitive examination taken after graduation, the top tier of teaching graduates will be awarded apprenticeship contracts that last three years. The first year of the apprenticeship will comprise academic courses culminating in a teaching degree for the secondary level. The following two years will comprise paid internships for the new teachers in schools. A positive internship evaluation is required for new teachers to become secondary school teachers with the award of a national contract." http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/countries/italy/teachers-teacher-education-and-professional-development/

zuletzt geprüft: 20.06.2019


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